What are endocrine hormones?

ENDOCRINE HORMONES: In humans, there are two types of endocrine glands those are thyroid gland and the adrenal glands

Generally, the endocrine system is known as a messenger system of the chemicals which is comprising feedback loops of hormones those are released by the internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system and they regulate the distance target organs

And also we can explain that the endocrine system is a network of the glands those are secrets the chemicals called hormones those hormones generally help to your body to maintain its activities properly

The hormones are generally known as the chemical signals that coordinate a range of bodily functions, the main function of the endocrine system is to maintain some activities inside the body and to regulate all its properties


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2.Posterior pituitaryAntidiuretic hormone(ADH)
Increase water absorptions from kidney, raises blood pressure, stimulates contraction of pregnant uterus after childbirth Hypothalamic secretion, blood osmolarity, uterine, stretch , sucking
3.Anterior pituitarySomatotrophin(growth hormone) Stimulates bone and muscle growth promote protein synthesis and fat mobilizationHypothalamic secretion
ProlactinPromotes production and secretion of milk after childbirthHypothalamic hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates production and secretion of thyroid hormonesBlood thyroxine levels, hypothalamic secretion
Adrenocortinotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol and other steroidsCortotropic releasing hormones(CRH) from the hypothalamus;blood cortisol levels
Leutenizing hormone (LH) in females and intersticial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) in malesInitiates ovulation and the secretion of sex hormones in both gendersHypothalamus secretions estrogen and testosterone levels
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates development of ovum in ovaries and sperm in testesHypothalamic secretions progesterone
4.THYROIDTetraidothyronin (Thyroxine Or T4) triodothyronine Or T2Increases oxygen consumption and heat production, stimulates , increases, and maintains metabolic processTSH regulated by thyrotropine releasing hormone (TSH) FROM the hypothalamus
CalcitoninInhibits calcium release from bone, this lowering blood calcium levelsBlood calcium concentrations
5.PARATHYROIDSParathyroid hormone (PTH) Increass blood calcium by stimulating calcium release from bone , decreases blood phosphate levelCalcium concentrations in blood
6.THYMUSSeveral thymosin and thymopoictin hormones:thymic humoral factor ;thymostimulinfactor;thymic serumStimulates Tcell development in thymus and maintenance in other lymph tissues ;involve in some But cell developing into anti body producing plasma cellsUnknown
7.PINEAL GLAND MelatoninInvolved in circulation rhythms ;antigonadotropic effects;exposure to light decreases release Exposure to light-dark cycles
8.ADRENAL MEDULLA epinephrine(adrenaline) Constricts blood vessels in skin, kidneys and gut which increases blood supplies to heart, brain and skeletal muscles leads to increase heart rate and blood pressure;stimulates smooth muscle contraction;raises blood glucose levelsSympathetic nerves system
NorepinephrineConstricts blood vessels;increases heart rate and contraction of cardiac muscles;increases metabolic rate Sympathetic nerves system
9.Adrenal cortexCorticosteroids glucocorticoidsRegulates blood glucose by affecting carbohydrates metabolism;affectes growth;decreases affects of stress and antiinflamatory agents ACTH:stress and serum electrolyte concentrations
Mineralocorticoids(mainly aldosterone) Regulates sodium, pottasium and water excretion by kidneyRenin and Angiostensin
(Mainly androgens-male sex hormones)
Contributes to secondary sexual characterstics (particularly after menopause) ACTH
10.Pancreas (islets of
InsulinLower blood sugar, increases glycogen storage in liver, stimulates protein synthesisBlood glucose concentrations


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