Brain tumor types, cause and Treatments

Brain tumor

Are you suffering in Brain Tumor? Do you know the solution, causes and what type of treatments are available in medical science? In this post we have discussed all about this.

What is a brain tumor?

The brain tumor is generally known as a cancerous or noncancerous and mass or growth of abdominal cells in the brain, it starts in a slow manner. Tumors can start in the brain or cancer elsewhere in the body  and it can later spread to the brain there are many different types of brain tumors are exist and maybe some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign) and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant), these are two forms:

The brain is the part of body organ which is composed of the various nerve cells and also with the supportive tissues like glial cells meninges
Generally there are three major parts of  brain  and they can control your all activity like breathing( by the brain stem) , and also the activities like moving muscles to work (by the cerebellum) and also all the senses like sight and our memory and they also controls our emotions, thinking and personality(by the cerebrum), generally it can said in a simple term that brain can be able to control all your body activities

brailn tumor
mayoclinic

Details regarding brain tumors

The primary brain tumors can be either of malignant types (or those contain cancer cells)
Or benign(they don’t contain cancer cells)
The primary brain tumor is a tumor which begins first in the brain tissue
But if a cancerous tumor starts elsewhere in the body it starts to grow and it can spread the cancer cells to the brain and after the cells entering to the brain those cells start growing in the brain so these types of brain tumors are known as secondary brain tumors
The Brain tumors can occur at any age in a lifetime, it is not at a particular age from birth to old age in any time tumors can occur.
Till now no researchers and doctors are able to know about the exact cause of brain tumors and the risk factors the actual reason to brain tumors cannot be explained correctly
include exposure to ionizing radiation and family history of brain tumors, the prescriber or doctor also should ask details to the patient regarding this concern

Brain tumor symptoms/what is brain tumor symptom/the signs and symptoms of brain tumors

The sign and symptoms of brain tumors are explained in details below

At first generally The symptoms of brain tumors require a medical diagnosis (by the examiner/doctor) and the symptoms include new or increasingly strong (strating symptoms) headaches, blurred vision, loss of balance, confusion, and seizures but in some cases, there may be no sign and symptoms, that is not a known reseason particularly
The brain tumors depends on their size types and location in the body
The most common signs and symptoms regarding brain tumors include headaches, Numbness or tingling in the arms or change in balance and walking problems also and nausea and vomiting or changes in speech, vision or hearing are the known symptoms of brain tumors

Brain tumors are decided as per the following
Doctors grouped brain tumors into some grades (grade-I, II, III or iv -the most serve)
According to doctors, the grade is determined by the way that the cells look under a microscope or their physical appearance under the microscope.
The higher the grade number of the tumors the more abnormal the cells appear under microscope and they more aggressively the tumor usually behaves, all are according to the grade levels

People also may experience:-

These are the irregular symptoms but can occur to the patient

Headache: it can be accurate or persistent(this can happen to a normal man also)
Muscular: it may be difficult to walk, instability, muscle weakness problems with coordination, weakness of one side body or weakness of the arms(the generally muscular problems happens to the body during the growth of the tumors)
Whole-body: dizziness, fatigue or vertigo
Gastrointestinal: nausea or vomiting
Sensory: pins and needles or reduced sensation of touch
Cognitive: inability to speak or understand language or mental confusion

The above all are the general symptoms appear during brain tumors  diseases but also all of those symptoms can happen to a normal man

Brain Tumor treatments

The treatment of a brain tumor depends on the stage:

The treatments of Brain Tumor includes medications,  surgery and medical procedure

Medications

Under medications, the treatment for a brain tumor is chemotherapy(it is a very popular treatment for brain tumors)

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a method of killing the affected cells those are growing or multiplying too quickly
chemotherapy is known as a drug treatment that destroys cancer cells the most common drugs that are used to treat primary brain tumors or the starting affected cells.

  1. Temozolomide(model)
  2. Lomustine (ccnu)
  3. Procarbazine and vincristine on their own or together (called PCV)

Surgery treatments

 

  1. Surgery treatment for Brain Tumor is known as craniotomy
  2. A craniotomy is a method of treatment for brain tumor in which a piece of bone is removed from the skull during the surgical treatment.

Generally, craniotomy is the most common type of operation for a brain tumor
The surgeon cuts out or removes out an area of bone from yours skull during the surgery
And after removing the brain tumor the surgeon puts the area of bone(called a flap) back, they puts it after the treatment

Medical procedure

Medical procedure for the treatment of brain tumors includes two type of methods and those methods are as follows:

Tomotherapy

Tomotherapy is generally known as the method of treatment for brain tumor in this  treatment method for cancer treatment that AIMS the high dose of radiation at tumors and the affected cells from many directions to reduce damage to the nearby tissue.

In this method of treatment of the planning of small brain tumors. .. helical tomotherapy(ht) method is used and this treatment is That combines irritating intensity e modulated fan beam with the integrated CT  images for high precision radiotherapy( HT) plans for the 12 patients those are suffering from small brain tumors and were compared with 5 other radiotherapy techniques they are including as follows:

Radiotherapy

The radiotherapy treatment is used by the strong x-rays and other high energy rays to kill abnormal cells or affected cells of tumors
In radiotherapy treatment a variety of therapies are used to treat brain tumors they are of many types
these statements of variety treatments include brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) and radiosurgery these are some of best treatments
Radiation therapy may be advised that are sensitive to this treatment for brain tumors.

Is Chemotherapy is effective for brain tumors or not?

There are some types of brain tumors such as medulloblastoma and lymphoma, tends to respond better to chemotherapy than the others they respond best to chemotherapy but chemotherapy is not as helpful as the above tumors for treating spinal cord tumors show chemotherapy is used less often for these tumors(that means the spinal cord tumors)
And camera is most often used along with the other treatments those are such as surgery and /or radiation therapy.

How long should chemotherapy for a brain tumor?

Generally, a course of treatment for brain tumors may last long from 6–12 months and it is
Consisting of 6–12 cycles. But you may have chemotherapy for a few days in every few weeks it may be as required.

How long is brain cancer treated?

The treatment options of a brain tumor or brain cancer include those following described matters below such as:

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation Therapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Targeted therapy

For a low grade, brain tumor surgery may be the only treatment needed especially if all of the tumor can be removed during the surgery completely

Why do people get brain tumors?

Till now it is not known  completely by the researchers that why people get brain tumors and why people without inherited syndromes develop brain or spinal cord tumors most exposure that causes cancer somehow damages the DNA, for example, the excess smoking of tobacco products is a risk factor for lungs cancer and several other types of cancers because it contains chemicals that can damage the healthy genes those are present inside the cells.

 

What is brain tumor surgery?

The  brain tumor surgery is the treatment method or procedure of removal of the tumor and also some surrounding healthy tissues during an operation for brain tumor
It is usually known as the first treatment used for a brain tumor and is often the one and only treatment needed for a low-grade brain tumor.

Surgery to the brain requires for the removal of part of the skull during the operation and the procedure is known as a craniotomy.

Side effects/ radiation to the brain can cause these short term side effects

The short term Side Effects that occur due to applying the radiation to the brain are:

  1. Headaches
  2. Hairl oss
  3. Nausea
  4. Vomiting
  5. Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  6. Hearing loss
  7. Skin and scalp changes
  8. The trouble with memory and speech

How many radiation sessions is a brain tumor?

How often you are taking radiotherapy you are most likely to have radiotherapy as a series of treatment for 3to 7 weeks for a brain tumor.
From Monday to Friday you should usually have one treatment or you may have the same treatment for twice a day for some types of tumor

Radiotherapy worse than chemotherapy or not

Chemotherapy destroys the cancer cells by using anti-cancer (known as long cytotoxic) drugs the chemotherapy drugs can make the cancer cells more sensitive to the radiotherapy by which the radiotherapy can work better during the application
But if we provide chemotherapy and radiotherapy at a time then they can make side effects of treatment worse, so chemotherapy and radiotherapy shouldn’t be used at a time for the safety of the patients.

Brain tumor types

Whenever the most normal cells are starts grow then the older cells get damaged and then the old damaged cells are dies and new growing cells takes their place.

But if sometimes this process of growing and destroying of cells in our body goes wrong then some new cells are from when the body does not have a need of them and old or damaged cells don’t die as they should so there is an irregular process appears inside the body.

They build up of extra cells those are not needed to the body often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or primary brain tumors can be of benign or malignant benign brain tumors and these do not contain any cancer cells.

Usually, the benign tumors (or malignant benign brain tumors are the primary brain tumors )removed and they seldom grow back.

Usually benign brain tumors have an obvious border or edge means in their physical appearance under the microscope.

Cells from benign tumors or primary brain tumors are rarely invaded tissues around them or the surrounded tissues.

They don’t spread to other parts of body however  the primary brain tumors or benign tumors can spread on the various sensitive areas of brain and cause serious health problems after they start growing.

Benign tumors in most other parts of body these are some life-threatening maybe leads to death
Benign brain tumors may become malignant brain tumors.

The malignant brain tumors are generally known as brain cancer and it also contains the cancer cells (means affected cancerous cells).

The malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and they affect the cells rapidly and often they are a threat to life means there is a risk of death
They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or Breakaway from malignant brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain, auto spinal cord there really spread to other parts of the body rapidly and causes life threat

.

Among adults, the most common types are an astrocytoma

Astrocytoma is the type of tumor which  arises from Star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes it can be any grade (those are graded by the doctors ) and in adults and astrocytoma most often arises in the cerebrum, in the cerebrum, they start primarily:

 

  • Grade I or ii astrocytoma
  • This is generally known maybe as a low-grade glioma
  • Grade iii astrocytoma
  • It is sometimes called a high grade or an anaplastic astrocytoma
  • Grade iv astrocytoma

It may be called glioblastoma or malignant astrocytic glioma

Meningioma

The tumors those are arises in meninges can B grade as I,ii,iii it is usually e Benign (grade I) and they start growing slowly.

Oligodendroglioma

The tumors those are arises from the cells those make the fatty substances that covers and protects nerves

  1. It usually occurs in the cerebrum or starts Arising from the cerebrum
  2. It is most common in middle-aged adults and It can be grade ii Or iii
  3. Among children the most common types are medulloblastoma.

 

Medulloblastoma

 

  1. The tumors those Usually arise in the cerebellum
  2. It is sometimes called a primitive neuroectodermal tumor
  3. It’s graded as IV by the doctors

 

Grade I or ii astrocytoma

In children, this low grade ii occurs anywhere in brain or can be arises arises in any parts of brain
The Most common astrocytoma among children is juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma it’s graded as I by the doctors.

Ependymoma

The tumors those are arises from those cells that line the ventricles or the central canal of the spin cord
It’s most commonly found in children and also they occur in young adults it can be graded as grade I Ii iii.

 

Brainstem glioma

The tumors that start/arieses/occurs in the lowest part of the brain
It can be a low grade or high-grade tumor the most common type of brain tumors is found that is diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Generally, the symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location inside the brain
The sign/symptoms may be caused when a tumor grows and also it presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain (includes anyone part ). Also, they may be caused when a tumor starts blocking the fluid that flows through and around the brain or when the brain swells because of the build-up of fluid or increasing of fluid.
The following symptoms:

  1. Headaches (usually worse in the morning)
  2. Nausea
  3. Vomiting
  4. Changes in speech
  5. Vision or hearing
  6. Problems balancing or walking
  7. Changes in mood
  8. Personality or ability to concentrate
  9. Problems with memory
  10. Muscle jerking or twitching (seizures or convulsions)
  11. Numbers or tingling in the arms or legs

This problem not only for a brain tumor may due to other problems or diseases so consult your doctor and then do a proper diagnosis. Causes or risk factors of brain tumors.The causes and risk factors of  brain tumors are as follows

Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation is the method of  treatment in which  high dose x rays and other sources can cause cell damage that leads to a tumor Also, those people exposed to ionizing radiation may have an increased risk of a brain tumor
Such as meningioma or glioma.

Family history

Your doctor should ask the following details to the patients regarding family history. It is rare for brain tumors to run in a family only a very small number of families have several members with brain tumors. Researchers are studying whether using cell phones have been exposed to certain chemicals at work or to magnetic fields are important risk factors. Studies have not shown consistent
Links between these possible risk factors and brain tumors

How are brain tumors diagnosed?

The following are:
The following tests
Neurological exam
Doctor checks your vision
Hearing

Altered and reflexes

Your doctor also examines your eyes to look for swelling caused by a tumor pressing on the nerve that connects the eye and the brain.

MRI

A large machine with a strong magnet linked to  a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside your head
Sometimes a special dye (contrast material)
Is injected into a blood vessel in your arm or hand to help show differences in the tissues of the brain
The pictures can show abnormal areas such as tumor

CT SCAN

An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your head
You may receive contrast materials by injection into blood vessels in your armor or head
The contrast materials make abnormal areas easier to see
Your doctor may ask for the tests

Angiogram

Dye injected into the bloodstream makes blood vessels in the brain show up on an xray may show the tumor or blood vessels that are feeding into the tumor

Spinal Tap

Your doctor may remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fluid fills the space in between and around the brain and spinal cord
This procedure is performed with local anesthesia
The drugs use along a thin needle to remove fluid from the lower part of the spinal column
A spinal Tap takes about 30minutes you must lie several hours afterward to keep from getting a headache

A laboratory checks the fluid for cancer cells or other signs of problems
Biopsy

The removal of tissues to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy
A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells
A biopsy can show cancer
Tissue changes that may lead to cancer and other conditions
A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnosis a brain tumor
Learn what grade it is and plan treatment
Surgeons can obtain tissue to look for tumor cells in two ways
Biopsy at the same time as treatment
The surgeon takes a tissue sample when you have surgery to remove part of all of the tumor.

Stereotactic biopsy

You may get local or general anesthesia and wear a rigid head frame for this procedure
The surgeons make a small inclusion in the scalp and drink a small hole (a burr hole)
Into the skull
CT OR MRI  used to guide the needle through the burr hole to the location of the tumor
The surgeons withdraw a sample of tissue with the needle
A needle biopsy may be used when a tumor is deep inside the brain or in a part of brain that cannot be operated on.

A little summary

The most common types of brain tumors among adults are an astrocytoma
Meningioma (a tumor that arieses from the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and oligodendroglioma
The most common type of primary brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma
Grade I or ii astrocytomas (or glioma) ependymoma and brain stem glioma
In a study, it has been found that risk factors for brain tumors to include ionizing
radiation from high dose x-ray (for example:- radiation therapy, where the machine aimed at the head) and family history
And the diagnosis of an ain tumor is done by a neurological exam (by a neurologist or neurosurgeon)
CT ( computed tomography scanscan)
And /or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
And other tests like an angiogram

Your diagnosis helps to predict the treatment

Neurologist base the treatment of brain tumors on the type of location and size of the Tumor in the body for health and age. The treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy (or a combination of treatment)
Supportive care is important before, during and after treatment to minimize symptoms and to improve your quality of life..Some patients can qualify for clinical trials

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